我们, 来自澳大利亚、喀麦隆、加拿大、中国、埃及、印度、墨西哥、巴基斯坦、南非、英国、美国等11个 国家和联合国开发计划署、世界自然基金会、湿地国际等组织的 130多位代表, 于2007年12月1日至4日相聚于岳阳、洞庭之滨, 围绕湿地生物多样性保护主流化进行了深入探讨, 达成广泛共识, 共同发表《洞庭湖宣言》:
湿地保护主流化是一种理念、一种机制、一个过程。它要求我们运用生态系统方法, 突破条块分割、政出多门的传统管理习惯, 将湿地生物多样性保护纳入到相关部门和行业的议事日程, 综合有效地协调其决策和行动, 以实现湿地的保护与可持续利用。
会议期间, 各国的湿地保护经验反复印证了主流化是确保湿地生物多样性保护和可持续利用的有效方法和措施。洞庭湖湿地兴盛与区域社会可持续发展的密切关系就是典型案例之一。昔日八百里洞庭, 吞长江, 纳四水, 浩浩汤汤, 为中国第一大淡水湖。是著名的鱼米之乡, 鸟类和其他野生动植物的天堂, 具有极为重要的生态、社会和文化价值。然而, 由于自然因素和人类活动的影响, 湖区人水争地, 湿地萎缩, 水生生物资源锐减, 使得洞庭湖湿地生态系统的服务功能受到了严重破坏, 影响到了洞庭湖区乃至长江流域经济社会的可持续发展。
我们高兴地看到, 中国各级政府和部门在国际社会的支持下, 逐步推进洞庭湖湿地保护的主流化工作, 将对其的保护列入到了洞庭湖区域、乃至长江中下游国民经济可持续发展的议事日程, 并先后在洞庭湖区各部建立自然保护区, 设立国际重要湿地、开展湿地恢复和保护以及大规模的退田还湖工程。此外, 联合国开发计划署和全球环境基金支持的中国湿地生物多样性保护与可持续利用项目以及世界自然基金会支持的生命之河项目也积极参与和促进了洞庭湖湿地保护的主流化实践。通过努力, 洞庭湖湿地生态系统的退化趋势得到了有效地遏制, 一个生机勃勃、润泽四方的洞庭湖正逐渐展现在我们面前。
湿地生态系统的多种功能和所提供的产品与服务是社会经济可持续发展的基础。她与陆地、海洋生态系统并列为全球三大生态系统, 是连接海洋与陆地生态系统的纽带; 湿地生态系统在全球碳循环中起着关键作用; 同时, 湿地又是地球上初级生产力最大的生态系统, 是生物多样性最丰富、最密集之场所, 为人类物质文明与精神文明建设的基础; 湿地调蓄洪水、净化水源的功能不仅为我们提供水源, 补充地下水, 还时刻为我们抵御自然灾害(洪灾、旱灾与风暴潮等)等等。
因其非常重要的价值和效益, 湿地是目前全球受破坏最严重、生物多样性受威胁最严重的生态系统, 其主要原因是没有统一协调的、可持续利用的湿地利用机制。尽管《湿地公约》与《生物多样性公约》已签署多年, 但是, 不仅全球范围内的湿地生态系统退化趋势仍然没有得到根本性扭转, 而且这种趋势还会因全球气候变化的影响而进一步加剧。
此外, 湿地, 尤其是泥炭地又是全球最重要的碳库。但若这类湿地遭受严重破坏, 将成为全球最重要的温室气体来源。
国际社会、各国政府、各级湿地管理部门和机构应加大对湿地生态系统功能与服务的宣传、教育和研究的投入力度, 让全社会认识到湿地生态系统在社会、经济可持续发展中的关键作用, 使湿地保护与可持续利用原则充分体现在各层次的社会、经济发展政策和规划的制订与实施过程中, 尽快扭转湿地退化的趋势, 恢复湿地生态系统功能和服务, 从而满足社会经济发展对湿地的需求, 应对全球气候变化。
迫切需要将湿地保护纳入到全球环境与发展的磋商进程中去。(1)湿地公约秘书处应在联合国所有相关磋商中拥有官方席位; (2)湿地公约应将其与生物多样性公约的合作模式推广到与其他多边协议(联合国可持续发展委员会、联合国防止沙漠化公约、联合国迁徙物种公约、联合国气候变化框架公约等)的合作中; 尤其是与联合国气候变化框架公约的合作, 尽快认可湿地生态系统在二氧化碳减排和应对全球气候变化中的作用;
鉴于湿地生物多样化保护主流化的重要性, 但《生物多样性公约》和《湿地公约》均没有相关的指南, 我们建议: (1)联合国开发计划署为生物多样性公约和湿地公约起草湿地生物多样性保护主流化技术指南; 2)《湿地公约》第十次缔约方大会考虑通过湿地保护主流化的大会决议;
成功的湿地保护主流化过程需要公众的认可与理解。因此, 我们恳请各国政府加大公众宣传力度, 让公众正确认识湿地的价值。同时, 积极的社区的参与是湿地保护主流化的关键, 我们建议各国政府采用公开、透明方针, 激励当地社区在湿地生物多样性保护中发挥更大的作用。
Dongting Lake Declaration
On the occasion of the
International Workshop on Mainstreaming Wetland Biodiversity Conservation
Dec. 1-4, 2007, Yueyang, China
We, 120 representatives from 11 countries representing both developed and developing countries from four continents, including Australia, Cameroon, Canada, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as from UNDP, Wetlands International and WWF, gathered by Dongting Lake from December 1st to 4th 2007, to discuss and debates the theme of mainstreaming wetland biodiversity conservation. Our consensus on this issue is reflected in this Dongting Lake Declaration.
We agree that:
Mainstreaming wetland conservation is a process, a philosophy and a mechanism by which wetlands policies, planning and implementation converge to form a comprehensive solution to wetlands biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. It requires an ecosystem approach, involving all levels of government, the public and private sectors, and integrating diverse sectoral interests, so as to form a coherent and coordinated wetlands biodiversity program that balances wetlands conservation and sustainable use.
Drawing attention to the fact that:
Experience from all countries in the workshop confirms mainstreaming as an effective mechanism that helps us to address wetland conservation issues. Dongting Lake, formerly the largest freshwater lake in China, is an important example of mainstreaming wetland biodiversity conservation. Dongting Lake once covered an area of six thousands square kilometers, accommodating the vast water inflows and outflows of the Yangtze River and its four tributaries. In the past, Dongting lake and its surrounding basin was managed by sectoral agencies in an uncoordinated manner that has led to damage to the wetlands, decline in biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem functions that are critically important to the health of the lower Yangtze River system. However, through mainstreaming there is now an integrated and coordinated management program for Dongting Lake that involves all sectors and which engages the public. Mainstreaming has also led to greater balance between conservation and sustainable development and has been the key factor in the recovery of Dongting Lake.
We note the efforts and progress made with regard to the Dongting Lake conservation, including the designation of three Ramsar sites, the large-scale return of agricultural land to wetland, wetland restoration and protection programmes, the UNDP supported Wetland Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme, and the WWF supported Partnership for a Living Yangtze Programme. These actions effectively reverse the degradation trend of the Dongting Lake wetland ecosystem.
We confirm that:
The multi-functions and services of wetland ecosystem are the basis of sustainable socio-economic development. Of the three global ecosystems, wetland ecosystems are the link between the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Wetlands play a critical role in global carbon cycling. They are also the ecosystem with the highest primary productivity and richest biodiversity on Earth and are the inspiration for cultural and spiritual values for millennia. Wetlands play a central economic role in areas such as flood retention and mitigation, groundwater recharge, and water purification and provide effective barriers to natural disasters like floods, droughts and storms.
We note that:
Notwithstanding the benefits of wetlands, they are the most deteriorated and biologically threatened of all global ecosystems. The cause is mainly the unsustainable, irrational and un-coordinated management of wetlands, which normally fails to integrate different purposes and interests in wetland utilization. Despite the Ramsar Convention and the Convention on Biodiversity, degradation of wetland ecosystems continues at the global scale, and will deteriorate further under global climate change. Wetlands, particularly peat lands, are one of the most globally important terrestrial carbon sinks; but if destroyed , they will become the largest single carbon source of global significance.
We endorse the proposal that:
International societies, governments, wetland management institutes and organizations should strengthen their efforts in communication, education and research of wetland ecosystem's functions and services, promote amongst the whole society the key role of wetlands in sustainable socio-economic development, integrate and embody principles of wetland conservation and sustainable management in the formulation and implementation of socio-economic development policies and planning at all levels, reverse as rapidly as possible wetland degradation and restore the functions and services of wetlands, so as to meet the needs of socio-economic development, to cope with global climate change, and to provide essential habitat that supports a healthy and diverse range of living species. .
Specifically, we recommend that:
A. At the International Level:
- Mainstreaming of wetland conservation be urgently integrated into the global processes of environment and development negotiation. This requires two actions: (1) The Ramsar Convention, through its Secretariat should have an official seat in United Nations fora on global issues, and (2) the Convention on Wetlands should extend its cooperation model with the Convention on Biological Diversity to other multi-lateral conventions such as UNCSD, CCD, CMS, and in particular UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), so as to include the central role that wetlands play in CO2 emission reduction and global climate change response strategies.
- Recognising the centrality of mainstreaming to wetlands biodiversity conservation, and noting the absence of specific guidance in either the Ramsar Convention or the CBD, we recommend that (1) the UNDP on behalf both of Ramsar and the CBD develop specific guidance on mainstreaming in wetlands and related biodiversity conservation, and (2) the 10th Conference of Parties (COP) of the Convention on Wetlands should consider adopting a resolution on mainstreaming wetland conservation.
- International NGOs should invest more in wetland conservation and facilitate the mainstreaming processes of wetland conservation at global, national, regional and site levels.
B. At the national level
- The past 20 years have demonstrated the fragility of wetland ecosystems, therefore we support the precautionary principle and recommend that all governments make this a guiding principle in wetlands mainstreaming activities.
- That governments adopt mainstreaming as the key component of wetlands management, extending from laws and regulations, to implementation practices.
- We note that the full range of economic and development instruments should be included and coordinated in wetland mainstreaming activities. This includes development policy, legislation, planning, finance and taxation, economic incentives, international trade, capacity building, and research, and technology.
- Successful mainstreaming requires an informed public, therefore we urge all governments to make special efforts to educate the public in wetlands values. We regard effective community participation as an essential element of mainstreaming and we urge all governments to adopt full disclosure and transparency in their stewardship of wetlands and wetlands biodiversity.